Week 12 Laboratory
Asterids (part II)
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This laboratory is designed for you to get acquainted with some families of the Asterid II clade
(the “campanulids”). In particular, the laboratory will give you some expertise in identifying
members of the Asteraceae (Compositae). Refer to Plant Systematics pp. 326-331 and Zomlefer
pp. 203 - 211 to become familiar with this family. The handout from the lecture on Asteraceae
will be of help.
You will need to be familiar with the three different floret types and how they
are arranged or combined in three different heads. The modified calyx (the pappus) and the
surrounding bracts around the heads (phyllaries or involucral bracts) are often mentioned in keys.
Keying: After completing the first two parts of the lab below, take an unidentified member of the
Asteraceae from your personal plant collection to identify. Use the “Keys to the Asteraceae of
Wisconsin” to identify your plant first to tribe (unless already provided by your lab instructor),
then to genus, and then to species. These keys are available on the front desk. Check your final
species determination against both the red book with line drawings (Illustrated Companion to
Gleason and Cronquist’s Manual) and the actual species folder in the Student Herbarium. Note
that a number of genera have been taxonomically re-arranged (especially Aster), so that you
should finally check the Field Manual of Michigan Flora (Voss & Reznicek) and the its online
website to check the proper binomial. The Student Herbarium is up-to-date in terms of families,
genera, and species nomenclature.
1. Dissection of Tagetes (marigold — tribe Heliantheae).
What type(s) of florets can you find?
What type of “head” is this? Identify the phyllaries and the receptacle.
Draw the head (view from side) – identify and label phyllaries
II. Demonstration floral dissections of Asteraceae. Examine the representatives of two of the three subfamilies of the Asteraceae. Make sure you understand the difference in the construction of the heads of the different groups (radiate head, discoid head, and ligulate head). Identify disc (tubular), ray, and ligulate flowers. Also be able to identify other features associated with the Asteraceae (receptacle, involucre, phyllaries, pappus).
A. Ageratum sp. (ageratum - tribe Eupatorieae)
B. Sonchus(sow thistle - tribe Cichorieae or Lactuceae)
III. Additional representatives of these and other families are placed around the room. As time permits, examine these plants and especially note the floral structures. You will not be required to know these plants; they are simply provided to illustrate additional members of these families. Pages for other families are provided for Plant Systematics [T] or the Zomlefer (Z) resource.
A. Campanula (Campanulaceae - bellflower) (not in [T], pp. 211-213 [Z])
B. Lobelia (Lobeliaceae or now Campanulaceae - lobelia) (not in [T], pp. 211-213 [Z])
C. Daucus carota (Apiaceae - wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace) (pp. 322 [T],193-198 [Z])
D. Anethum graveolens (Apiaceae - dill) (pp. 322 [T],193-198 [Z])
E. Carum corvi (Apiaceae - caraway) (pp. 322 [T],193-198 [Z])
F. Schefflera (Araliaceae - schefflera, umbrella plant) (pp. 322 [T], 193-198 [Z])
G. Scaevola (Goodeniaceae) (p. 331 [T])
H. Scabiosa (Dipsacaceae - scabious) (pp. 334-335 [T])
I. Viburnum (Caprifoliaceae or sometimes Adoxaceae - viburnum) (not in [T], 198-203 [Z])
J. Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae - honeysuckle) (pp. 331- 334 [T], 198-203 [Z])
I. Barnadesia (Asteraceae - one of the most primitive Asteraceae)
J. Tagetes (Asteraceae - French marigold)
K. Senecio cineraria (Asteraceae - dusty miller)
L Ageratum houstonianum (Asteraceae - ageratum)
M. Zinnia angustifolia (Asteraceae - zinnia)
N. Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae - daisy)
O. Gaillardia (Asteraceae - blanket flowers)
P. Centratherum (Asteraceae)
IV. 14 genera of Wisconsin plants to be able to identify on site.
1. Osmorhiza (Apiaceae - sweet cicely)
2. Eryngium (Apiaceae - rattlesnake master)
3. Daucus (Apiaceae - wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace)
4. Panax (Araliaceae or sometimes Apiaceae - ginseng)
5. Aralia (Araliaceae or sometimes Apiaceae - sarsaparilla)
6. Campanula (Campanulaceae - bellflower, harebell)
7. Lobelia (Lobeliaceae or sometimes Campanulaceae - lobelia, cardinal flower)
8. Sambucus (Caprifoliaceae or sometimes Adoxaceae - elder)
9. Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae-- honeysuckle)
10. Helianthus (Asteraceae - sunflower)
11. Taraxacum (Asteraceae - dandelion)
12. Ambrosia (Asteraceae - ragweed)
13. Cirsium (Asteraceae - thistle)
14. Solidago (Asteraceae - goldenrod)
V. Keying: you should be making progress on your plant collections by identifying your specimens to species. Find some unidentified specimens in your collection that belong to the Asterids (families covered in this lab) or especially to the Asteraceae and key them to species.