Example of Exam 1
For 4 of the following 5 pairs of terms, clearly distinguish the two terms using words. Illustrations (clearly labeled) may supplement your answers. Do not do all 5 (continue on back if necessary).
(a) follicle and achene
(b) hypogynous and epigynous flower
(c) cordate and peltate leaf
(d) hypanthium and corolla tube
(e) axile and marginal placentation
Match the following. Only one best answer for each, but you can use a name more than once or not at all. Do all 13, 12 needed for full credit (1 pt. extra credit if all 13 correct).
Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien
artificial classification based on medicinal properties of plants
revolutionized classification by stressing “descent” and “modification”
“Sexual” system of classification
“Salix (willow) = primitive”
first argued “Magnolia = primitive”
recent classification system based largely on molecular results
first noticed the mysterious nature of the fossil record as it pertained to the rise of angiosperms
“Ladder of life” concept
formalized the use of binomial Latin names
“Sensual” system of classification
American classifier in tradition of Bessey
L. de Jussieau
The following names have been given to plants of the genus Penstemon by different botanists at different times:
Penstemon brachyanthus Pennel 1941
Penstemon formosus A. Nels. 1904
Penstemon micranthus Nutt. 1834
Penstemon procerus Dougl. ex R. Grah. 1829
Penstemon tolmiei Hook. 1838
If, in the opinion of a taxonomist who studied the group, the above names apply to the same species, which is the accepted name?
What would the other names then be called?
Choose only 1 of the following 2 questions to answer in detail on the back of this page.
(a) Discuss how the ‘foliar theory of the flower’ has played an important role in (1) understanding of what the flower is, and (2) providing the foundation for one common view on what primitive angiosperms should look like. How does the fossil finding described in your reading (Sun et al. 2002) bear on this issue?
(b) Define both “artificial” and “natural” systems of classifications. What were the motivations (both from historical and science bases) for Carolus Linnaeus and Antoine de Jussieu in producing an artificial and natural system of classification, respectively? Your reading on classification (Judd et al. 2002a) uses the terms ‘analytical’ vs. ‘synthetic’ classifications — how do these apply to Linnaeus and de Jussieu?
Match the descriptions with the correct family. Place the correct family (use the appropriate letter only once; not all used) in the blanks provided.
A. Amborellaceae B. Annonaceae C. Aristolochiaceae D. Berberidaceae
E. Magnoliaceae F. Nymphaeaceae G. Papaveraceae H. Ranunculaceae
P• A• G• elongated receptacle follicles
P 3+3+3 A• G• aromatic aggregate fruits
CA 2 CO 8 A• G (2-•) latex capsules
CA 3 CO 0 A• G (12) fly pollinated
CA 4-• CO • A• G (•) cordate leaves laminar stamens
CA 6 CO 6/9 A6/9 G 1 berries NAm-Asia disjuncts
TRUE OR FALSE
The closest relatives among seed plants to the angiosperms are now clearly identified.
Yellow flavonoid compounds in Columnea of the African Violet family (Gesneriaceae) are consistent with ovary position and not biogeographical distributions.
Convergence is the phenomenon when analogous parts exhibit similar appearances in two unrelated taxa inhabiting the same selective environment.
In the rules of Botanical Nomenclature relating to the type method, the ‘holotype’ is the most important specimen for nomenclatural purposes.
The “eudicots” are also called “triporates” since they possess 3-pored pollen.
“Dicotyledons” (as in Cronquist’s and many others’ classification systems) are now shown to be a monophyletic group.
The PhyloCode system uses no hierarchical categories such as genus, family, order.
In the “taxonomic soap opera”, both new names for the yellow Heliconia species were later considered synonyms of H. magnifica by the monographer of the genus.
One of the 4 goals of systematics is to “Inventory the world's flora”.
The appropriate methaphor for phylogenetics is a ‘ladder’ with increasing complexity and specialization as evolution proceeds up rung by rung.
Betalain pigments are restricted to Caryophyllids, appear to have originated only once, but lost twice independently.
Monocots have 3-pored pollen and thus are not basal angiosperms.
The origin of angiosperms now appears to be from east Gondwana (Austral-Asia).
The term tepal can be used when there are distinct sepal and petal whorls, but the two are similar in color, texture, and size.
Adnation is the fusion of parts from different whorls of the flower.
Mustard oils, based on recent DNA evidence, have only evolved once in flowering plants (the order Brassicales or Capparales).